Despite the increased interest in craft beer, beer still dominates global sales, with more than 150 billion liters consumed worldwide each year.

beer is beer Fermenting at low temperatures using yeast which is described as “bottom fermenting”.

Yeast is a single-celled fungus that is used in fermentation to convert maltose into alcohol and carbon dioxide, which gives beer its rumbling and fizz. They are either top or bottom fermenters.

In top fermentation, which takes place at warmer temperatures, yeast cells cluster near the surface incitement liquid.

In bottom fermentation, which takes place at lower temperatures, the yeast is transferred to the bottom of the fermentation liquid.

Ales (which predate lager) were made using the highly fermented yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The origins of bottom fermented beer yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus has long been shrouded in mystery and controversy.

However, by combining historical research with modern science, a team of scientists from the Technical University of Munich and University College Cork (myself included) has explored the possible formation – and the path to global domination – of S. Pastorianus.

The discovery began with a study of ancient fermentation records in central Europe by Munich-based scientists Franz Mosdoerfer and Martin Zarenkopf. It’s a tale of power, economy, science, and innovation — with some sex thrown in for good measure.

But in short, the crossbreeding of S. cerevisiae from Bohemia with Bavarian yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus in Munich at the beginning of the 17th century gave rise to the first strain of brewer’s yeast.

lager beer This has contributed to some fertile science and technology exchanges between them (Source: Pixabay)

To date, the prevailing wisdom has been that the advent of bottom fermentation in fermentation coincided with the genesis of S. pastorianus. However, among the many interesting discoveries in our new report in the journal FEMS Yeast Research is the discovery of this bottom fermentation In southern Germany it predates the birth of S. pastorianus by at least 200 years.

In fact, bottom brewing originated in northern Bavaria. Not only was this common practice in this part of Germany, but the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot brewing regulations of 1516 only allowed bottom brewing.

Thus, from at least the 16th century onwards, Bavarian brown beers were produced by a mixture of different types of bottom-fermented yeast known as “stellhefen”.

An exception to the rule

Yeast dominated these mixtures, which favored the low temperatures of Bavaria at the time, a relic from the Little Ice Age of the Middle Ages.

At the same time it was the historical district Bohemia, to the northeast, was under different political rule. Here, beer—including wheat beer—was produced with a preference for the higher-fermenting species S. cerevisiae.

The Rheinheitsgebot 1516 banned Bavarians from brewing wheat beer, which led to a vibrant export market in wheat-based beverages from Bohemia to Bavaria. This resulted in a loss of income for the Bavarian nobility who controlled the brewing.

Eventually, in 1548, nobleman Hans VI von Dygenberg was granted the privilege of brewing wheat beer in Bavaria, and his family built a famous wheat brewery in the town of Schwarzach.

But franchises need protection. When Hans VIII Sigmund von Dygenberg, great-grandson of Hans VI, died without an heir in 1602, Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria and then Prince of the Holy Roman Empire seized his estates, including the brewery.

Historical records show that on October 24, 1602, high-fermenting yeast was brought to the Hofbräuhaus brewery in Munich where, at that time, brewing wheat beer alternated with making traditional. barleyBavarian brown beer.

from top to bottom

My colleagues and I propose that by the time a brewery dedicated to wheat beer opened in 1607, yeasts from the mixture of wheat beer yeast from the top-fermented Schwarzzach and the bottom-fermented Hofbräühaus stellhefen yeast had crossed, creating the new species we now know as S. pastorianus.

Thus, the genus in the beer cellar created the direct ancestor of all modern strains of brewer’s yeast.

This theory is consistent with published genetic evidence showing that the parent of S.

But this is not the end of the story. Two hundred years later, in 1806, the hiring of the Munich Hofbräuhaus’ new master brewer, Gabriel Sedelmayr the Elder, changed the world of beer forever.

Although Sedlmayr resigned and purchased the Oberspatenbrau brewery only a year later, he took his yeast mixture with him and created a highly successful brewing system based on technological innovation and links with local academics.

The company started by Sedlmayr, later known as the Spaten Breweries, became a center of excellence that attracted brewers from all over Europe, who brought home Munich’s technology – and its yeasts.

Among them was JC Jacobsen, founder of the Carlsberg brewery, who brought Stelhaven Munich back to the Danish capital Copenhagen in 1845.

There, in 1883, Emil Christian Hansen isolated the first pure strains of S. pastorianus. Jacobsen and Hansen of the Carlsberg brewery, Gabriel Sedlmayr the Younger, and Luis Aubry, an entomologist and microbiologist at the Munich Research Station, put together a friendship built on a passion for beer and progress.

This has contributed to some fertile scientific and technological exchanges between them.

Shortly thereafter, German scientist Paul Lindner, working at the Berlin Institute, also isolated S. pastorianus from mixtures originally derived from Spaten breweries, which was now widespread among Munich breweries.

All modern strains of S. pastorianus can be traced back to the work of Hansen and Lindner, and thus ultimately descend from the Hofbrauhaus stellhefen.

More intrigue followed, including bitter rivalries between breweries and heated academic debates about the evolutionary relationships between different strains. But for now, we can rejoice to learn that an important missing piece has been found in the narrative of how the pint of beer was born.

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